The bread of the people, meanwhile, was once done with a coarse flour which retained all the required components of the wheat grain, hence the name “bread.” Since the particles were coarse, which contained a high proportion of fiber and protein and, as if that were not enough, was made with the yeast, the Glycemic Index was even lower (35 to 45). With the invention of the cylinder mill in 1870, the manufacture of white flour has spread, at first in the West, then in all countries of the world. This new technical means obviously considered, even if wrongly, a “progress” would translate into an impoverishment of the nutritional quality of the bread.
Since then, thanks to increasingly sophisticated equipment in the milling, flour are becoming more “pure”, in the technical sense of the term. Which translates, nutritionally speaking: less fiber, less protein and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids …) and more fine particles. This results in an increasingly high glycemic index in all foods to which this hyper refined flour is a major component.
The physico-chemical properties of the starches constantly evolve under the influence of water, the variations of temperature and time.
Each treatment Hydrothermal, industrial or culinary, food causes a transformation that gives the property and a specific digestibility.
The result is a specific intestinal absorption that results in a relative glycemic response and insulin.
The glycemic index of a food is the result of several parameters, of which it is absolutely necessary to account for our nutritional choices.
Some starches or starchy foods, although complex, are more hyperglycaemic simple sugars. ” This happens for example in the case of French fries (GI 95), which are most hyperglycaemic sugar (GI 70).